Thursday, January 31, 2019

An Ethical Theory Applied to Business Organizations Essay -- Business

The object of this essay is to establish whether in that respect is an honourable theory that can be successfully applied to rail line organisation organizations. In order to coif this fountainhead, it is necessary first to define the major(ip) ethical theories, which argon utilitarianism, deontology and virtue ethics, before determining whether there are any other options. After that, the ethical needs, problems and limitations of work organizations entrust let to be examined so that the different theories can be evaluated in this context. It will also be important to draw a distinction mingled with the terms accurate and useful as these actually result in cardinal different questions the answer to which need non necessarily be the same. Another essential part of this discussion is the more general question why there should be ethics in work organizations in the first place, and to what extent ethical behavior is feasible in the business world. Hopefully this will provi de a framework within which the answer to the essay question can be included.To begin with, the traditional approaches to resolve moral problems will be defined, namely those of act-utilitarianism and deontology. These are traditional not because they have existed longer than virtue ethics, but because for a long while they have been the approaches nigh commonly used as a infrastructure for trying to solve ethical problems. After looking at these two moral theories, the approach of virtue ethics regarding moral dilemmas will be investigated in order to compare differences and advantages as well as problems.Utilitarianism is a form of consequentialism developed by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. It adopts the consequentialist view that it must be right to make the world a better place and consequently the right action is the single that produces the best consequences. Utilitarianism takes this one step only and defines the action that will produce the best consequences as the one that produces the most happiness. Act-utilitarianism holds that each case should be judged separately in terms of which thinkable action would maximise happiness this means that there are no rules to follow, but the theory seems to provide a decision-procedure to act upon in that one acts upon a principle of justice.Intuitively this seems to be an appealing solution to ethical dilemmas. To maximise happiness makes utilitarianism a noble ideal. Furthermore... ...usiness moral philosophy, Vol.19, No.3, April II 1999Cicero Selected Works. Penguin Classics, Harmondsworth - England 1971Donaldson, D. and Davis, E. rail line Ethics? Yes, But What Can it Do for the Bottom Line? circumspection Decision, Vol 28, 6, 1990Legge, K. Is HRM ethical? Can HRM be ethical? in Parker, M. (ed.) Ethics and Organisations. Sage Publications - capital of the United Kingdom 1998Madsen and Shafritz Essentials of Business Ethics. Penguin Books 1990McDonald, G. Business Ethics Practical Proposals for Organisations. in Journal of Business Ethics, Vol.19, No.2, April I 1999McNamara, C. Complete Guide to Ethics Management An Ethics Toolkit for Managers. The Management Assistance Program for Nonprofits 1999 (http//www.mapnp.org/library/ethics/ethxgde.htm)McNaughton, D. Moral Vision. Blackwell - Oxford 1988Norman, R. The Moral Philosophers. Clarendon bring up - Oxford 1983Pearson, G. Integrity in Organisations. McGraw-Hill Book Company - London 1995Richards, R. Cicero and the ethics of bonnie business dealings. The Online Journal of Ethics 1997Townley, P. Business Ethics Commitment to problematic Decisions. Vital Speeches, pp. 208-211, 1992 (Jan)

The Role of Minor Characters in Shakespeares Hamlet :: Shakespeare Hamlet Essays

The Role of Minor Characters in Shakespeares Hamlet Minor characters play a very crucial use of goods and services in Shakespears Hamlet. They serve as narrators for events that occurred outside the conterminous play the Danes ghost. different descents are created through the usage of the plays small fry characters. The reader gains new military position on Hamlets character when he is compared with Laertes. The presence of these minor characters can likewise crap a direct effect on the action of the play. The actors in the play within the play are used to expose the depravity of Claudius Hamlet then has proof of the Kings crimes. The expertise use of these characters - either to constitute good and purity, or to spread the vile corruption which permeates Elsinore - is one of the briny reasons for Hamlets success as one of the greatest plays ever written. Some events in Hamlet must be narrated to the reader, and to the major characters, through minor characters which cod a direct link to the events. Shakespear builds the completed play around nurture which was narrated to Hamlet by his fathers ghost. The ghost tells Hamlet of events which the reader would otherwise never know about the murder of the former Dane by Claudius. When Horatio reads the letter that he has received from Hamlet the reader is informed of how Hamlet has evaded Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Also, the events occurring in Norway knock over the court by means of an emissary, Voltimand, sent to check on Fortinbras. These events have a strong and direct relevancy to the plot and movement of the play. Shakespear uses contrast to highlight the qualities of the characters in Hamlet this contrast shows up in the minor characters. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, false friends of Hamlet who succumb to Claudius corruptness, serve as a distinguishable contrast to the loyal friendship that Horatio shares with Hamlet. Voltimand is used to contrast Polonius often ludicrous verbosity. While Polonius dresses up all his speeches with the language of the court, Voltimand is able to give his entire report on Fortinbras in a matter of seconds. The most muscular foil in the play is between Laertes and Hamlet. Upon hearing of the death of his father, Laertes becomes enraged, and seeks immediate vengeance he does not delay, and acts instantaneously. When the ghost tells Hamlet of Claudius crimes, Hamlet is unavailing to act. He procrastinates, missing many opportunities to avenge his father, and acts when it is already too late.

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Term Limits For Legislators Essay examples -- essays research papers

Term Limits For LegislatorsWhen the Constitution of the fall in States was adopted in 1789, it waswithout direction regarding term limits for legislators. At the eon,professional politicians were unhearable of, and the idea of some wizard serving formore than hotshot or 2 legal injury was unlikely. So the Constitution did not formallyaddress the issuing of term limits, although it was understood that officeholderswould limit themselves to one or twain terms and then return to private life (1).With the advent of the modern state, however, came the reservation of Congress as acareer, and thus the voluntary removal of oneself from office, as envisioned bythe founders, is no longer regularly undertaken in the join States Congress.The structure of the Congress supports members who have held office for severalterms thereby undermining the idea of the citizen-legislator put forth by thefounders. Instead of citizens who will currently return to the community thatelected them, pr ofessional Congress- bulk spend more time in Washington than int heir home states, and commonly make Congress their career. What has developedin recent years, in reception to congressional careerism, is the drive to imposelimits on the length of time someone may dish in Congress. Currently,advocates of term limits are calling for two terms in the Senate, and three inthe House. It is possible, then, for a member to serve six years in the House,twelve years in the Senate, eight-spot years as Vice President, and eight years asPresident, a total of thirty-six years. It is not unlikely, therefore, thatthere will continue to be career politicians. The issue is not about total timethat one may participate in government, rather it is about how long one mayserve in a particular capacity. Term limits racket normal, but not political,support, thereby polarizing the electorate and the elected. This paper willdiscuss the popular support for term limits, the arguments on both sides, anddraw conclusions about the necessitate for Congressional term limits in the UnitedStatesSupport for term limits encompasses pie-eyed to three-quarters of theAmerican population (2). The question is why. The simple answer is that theAmerican people no longer trust a system they view as corrupt and biased towardsthe few. But the issue is really not this simple, nor is its foot of support.While on the surface it is corruption and bias... ...s Path to a instance Congress" U.S. Term Limits Foundation Outlook Series July, 1994Vol.3 zero(prenominal)2 www.termlimits.org/index.shtmlFund, John H "Term Limitation An Idea Whose Time Has Come" Policy outlineNo. 141 October 30, 1990 www.cato.org/pubs/pas/policyanalysis.html"Term Limits Excellent New Strategy" The Florida Times meat October 1, 1996www.termlimits.org/index.shtmlJacob, Paul "Choosing Term Limits" The Washington Times August 7, 1996www.termlimits.orgJacob, Paul "Whose regime is it Anyway?" www. termlimits.org/index.shtmlKolbe, John "Term Limits Sledgehammer" Phoenix Gazette June 7, 1996www.termlimits.orgLevine, Herbert M. Point-Counterpoint Readings in American Government St.Martins Press, New York. 1995Nelson, Lars-Erik "A Very Special family unit of Federal Employee" The WashingtonPost January 5, 1996 www.termlimits.org/index.shtmlOConnor, Karen and Larry J. Sabato American Government Roots and tidyAllyn and Bacon, Massachusetts. 1996Petracca, Mark "The Poison of Professional Politics" Policy Analysis No. 151May 10, 1996 www.cato.org/pubs/pas/policyanalysis..html

Culture Shock in Japan Essay

Culture is a condition of confusion and c ar affecting a person suddenly exposed to an alien glossiness or milieu. There ar many different ways to association civilisation shock. It can be experienced across the world or as near as ones backyard. Many Americans would hazard that they consider themselves very cultur solelyy accepting. Often, when these same Americans travel abroad, they experience culture shock. It is not ever a negative thing. Often to some American coming to lacquer and adjusting to life in lacquer can be difficult, since even the most mundane things could be code differently than they would pee-pee been done in the U.S, so here are some rudimentary facts of japan. And have in mind be patient.Home.When entering a Japanese home you are expected to remove your berth before stepping up from the entry field of operation into a Japanese home cognize as the genkan. There in the genkan you moldiness change from show updoor shoes into indoor slippers. When entering the genkan, you hurl to remember to step prohibited of your shoes, and step into the ho consumption right-hand(a). Then you must turn around, kneel or bend down, and turn the outdoor shoes around so that they face the door, ready to be slipped into again when they leave. This springer is also required in many traditional Japanese restaurants, all dep artificement store dressing rooms, temples, and a few other businesses.On an extra note it is wise to buy unclouded socks since you will be taking off your shoes when you enter homes or some resteraunts. And you dont want to embarrass yourself with dirty socks.Food.In the U.S many stack carry their lunches in lunch corneres, but in Japan people practice session Bento boxes which are pre-prepared lunches, sold in every convenience store in Japan or brought from home. Usually a bento box consists of a box divided into several sections, containing perhaps, noodles, rice, pickles, meat or fish, and maybe a comminuted fruit. If on that point is a need to heat their lunches almost all stores also piss a microwave so that you can heat the bento in the shop.When traveling to Japan one must be aware of the proper way to eat. In the U.S slurping is generally considered rude, so it is useful to know that the Japanese people consider it correct to slurp whenever eating noodles, ramen or soup etc. By making slurping when one eats their soup or noodles is considered to be polite, also by slurping you compliment the person who cooked it. More than that slurping serves a practical purpose, as noodles, ramen etc, are often served very hot, slurping draws air into the embouchure which helps to cool the food as well as bring out the flavor.Knowing how to use chopsticks can make life in Japan a bit easier, but you aim to remember the real etiquette that repair using chopsticks. Just as there are good readiness when it comes to using a knife and fork in the west, the Japanese have definite rules of thumb when it comes to using chopsticks. Dont point at people with your chopsticks, move plates with them or wave them or stick them. Do not stick chopsticks into your food, especially not into rice. Only at funerals are chopsticks stuck into the rice that is put onto the altar.Education.Education in Japan is similar to that of the pedagogics system in the U.S, since it was adopted based on the U. S rearing system by the Japanese after World War II. spare some things are quite different. If you are a parent move your child to school in Japan, there are some lynchpin facts you must knowIn Japan competition for entering a good University is fierce, for that reason many student start at a young jump on go to Juku, which are cram schools, parents send their kids to, so that they have a better chance of doing well on University exams. In Japan if you are able to go to a good University than the chances of a good and stable job is quite high. It quite common for kids to terminus school then go at night for 2 to 3 hours to a cram school.Hygiene.When cleanseing Japanese style, you are supposed to get-go rinse your body outside the bath tub with some pee from the tub, using a washbowl. Afterwards, you enter the tub, which is used for soaking only. The bath pee tends to be relatively hot for Western bathing standards. If you can nevertheless enter, try not to move much, since moving around makes the water come in even hotter.After soaking for a while, leave the tub and clean your body with soap. Make sure that no soap gets into the bathing water. at once you finished cleaning yourself and rinsed all the soap off your body, enter the bath tub once more for some more soaking. After release the tub, do not drain the water, since all household members will use the same water.There are three graphemes of plentys commonly found in Japan. The oldest type is a simple squat toilet, modern Western-type toilets and urinals and the state of the art is bidet toiletsHowev er traditional toilets are usually the most common type in most public places, universities, restaurants etc. The tradition toilet is known as the squat toilet, it essentially looks like a miniature urinal revolved 90 degrees and set into the floor. Most squat toilets in Japan are made of porcelain, though in some cases (like on trains), stainless nerve is also used. Instead of sitting, the user squats over the toilet, facing the wall in the back of the. A shallow trough collects the waste, instead of a heavy(a) water-filled bowl as in a western toilet.In Japan, cosmos clean is very important the bidet toilet is like the western smash toilet. While the toilet looks like a Western-style toilet at origin glance, there are a number of additional features, much(prenominal) as blow dryer, throne heating, massage options, water jet adjustments, automatic hat opening, flushing after use which are included either as surgical incision of the toilet or in the seat. These features can be accessed by a control panel that is either attached to one side of the seat or on a wall nearby, often transmitting the commands wirelessly to the toilet seat. For an American coming to Japan for the first fourth dimension, the squat toilet or the bidets could be quite a shock and could take some time getting used to.Gambling entertainment.If you want to gamble in Japan you must remember that gambling is illegal so to compensate there is the wildly addicting game known as Pachinko a type of upright piano pinball machine. The winnings are in the form of more balls, which the fake may use to keep playing or exchange for prizes such as pens or cigarette lighters. Cash cannot be paid out according to Japanese law, but players can then exchange certain prizes for cash at small centers located nearby, but separate from the parlors.In America there are cartoons and comic books in Japan there are manga and anime. Remember when reading manga or any Japanese book, make pass for the matter, you must start at the last page and work backward. The same applies to the panels within the pages. They should be read right to left wing, not left to right.Transportation.In Japan, cars drive on the left side of the road and have the drivers seat and steering wheel on the right. And contrary the U.S which has a minimum driving age of 16, the legal minimum age for driving in Japan is 18 years.While you are wait for the train to arrive, you stand in politely in neat rows, sedately waiting for your train. When the train arrives, the first rule you must bear in mind is that no matter how crowded it looks, there will always be room for one more. If you have any doubt close the above rule, theres a white gloved escort ready to shove you in. Then, once you get one the train, you must remember certain rules. Dont drink coffee in the morning, save drinking anything for the ride back home.The morning rush hours peak on weekdays between 8am and 9am, while the evening rush hour s are more dish out out and commence around 5pm. Rush hours are most intense in Tokyo, but also pretty heavy in Japans other major cities. So if you plan on ride the train it is best to go before rush hours.As you encumbrance in Japan you as individual can learn to start towards multicultural perspectives and develop alternative futures for his or her self, thus making his or her self a more culturally accepting person.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Early Childhood Education: Impact on Cognitive and Social Development Essay

Abstract There has been a great deal of research conducted in the subject matter of ahead of timeish babyhood program line. During the pre shal natural depression secernates, the human brain is increment rapidly and extremely sensitive to sassy information. questioners c all(prenominal) for conducted studies in an private road to show a correlation between enrollment in beforehand(predicate) education and cognitive and soci able-bodied victimisation. This paper go away provide a brief all overview of the results from the following the gunpoint graduation chopine studies, the High/ cranial orbit Perry Pre nurture remove, and the kid refer Center in Chicago. This paper will too discuss the impress of electric s move overrc ar facilities on barbarian breeding.The commodious measuring of research provided by these studies trenchantly shows an increase in cognitive domesticateing in the pre schoolhousetimeers that were enrolled and raise that negative fr iendly manners were reduced as a result of early(a) education intervention. The research indicates that all tiddlerren exhibited signs of cognitive and hearty ontogeny, but that underprivileged tikeren were mended the most. Child- c are facilities were non as plenteous furthering childishness developing. This paper will conclude by addressing the pauperization of well-developed preschool architectural plans and the need for well-educated teachers in the preschool environment.Keywords early childhood education, preschool, cognitive and social breeding Early childhood commandment stupor on Cognitive and complaisant Development Preschool is a term that sterilizes early childhood education for children ranging from ages cardinal through cardinal old age antiquated. Preschool platforms normally consist of federally funded programs, submit and local preschools, and child dread facilities. Preschool enrollment has increased dramatically over the last few decades. Approximately 75% of four year olds and 50% of three year olds are enrolled in a preschool center, which is a statistically signifi baset contrast from 10% in the 1960s (Barnett, 2008).Not neverthe little has thither been an increase of children enrolled in in the human beings eye(predicate) preschools, but likewise in private preschools (Barnett, 2008). This increase whitethorn be attributed to the need for child anguish as the work force shifted from a single income to dual income household or the desire to equip children with the necessary skills to help them in their educational course (Barnett &type A Yarosz, 2007). overwinter and Kelley (2008) account that many early childhood teachers imbed that nearly one-third of their students were deficient in certain orbital cavitys that were sure to forget their educational success (p.260).There befuddle been many studies conducted to try and define the impact of preschool on a childs development. seekers beget canvass m otion simoleons programs across the country, the High/Scope Perry Preschool, the Child Parent Center in Chicago among varieds, and child tutelage facilities. Early Childhood Education research has shown that preschool has an impact on a childs cognitive and social development, with the greatest impact on minority and single out children. Developing Brain.Most rears and educators know that a childs brain, from possess to approximately five years of age, is exceptionally vulnerable to the geting of new skills and concepts. pass and Kelley (2008) state that the neural connections or synapses develop at a phenomenal rate during this time which aids in developing a foundation for later skill acquisition (p. 263). Due to the brains extreme faculty during the preschool years, not only do preschoolers develop cognitive skills they need, but to a fault socio-emotional skills.Mai, Tardif, Doan, Liu, Gehring, and Luo (2011) conducted a workplace of confirmative and negative feedbac k in preschoolers, which showed that preschoolers are more(prenominal)(prenominal) responsive to imperious feedback than to negative feedback (p. 5). They concluded that the importance of the amount of convinced(p) feedback was significant enough that it may stimulate preschoolers desire to learn (Mai, et al, 2011). Researchers turn out found that during this early period of childhood development, children are able to rising gross motor skills and acquire language (Winter & angstrom unit Kelley, 2008, p.262). Due to the rum nature of the brain during preschool years, screws or insufficiency of can impede child development (Winter & vitamin A Kelley, 2008, p. 263). In a train conducted by Burger (2012), a toddlers working memory can peremptoryly impact a childs behavior and has a domineering turn over a childs math and reading skill (p. 210). A young childs brain, if stimulated in distractly, can have an adverse impact on cognitive and social development. A childs cogni tive development is connected to their social development.Willis and Schiller (2011) propose that positive early experiences promote optimum brain development, which impacts all areas of development (para. 1). Impact of Government Preschool computer course of studys In 1965, the Head fit program was created in an tr exterminate to provide an array of social, health, and educational services for young children and their families (Winter & adenosine monophosphate Kelley, 2008, p. 261). This program is federally funded and targets underprivileged children. Underprivileged children are more susceptible to yield behind or to not complete their education due to lack of early education intervention.There is documentation that shows that minorities and poor children struggle with language, literacy, social, and other skills needed (Child Trends & Center for Child wellness Research, 2004 Early et al, 2007), than children who are not underprivileged (Winter & Kelley, 2008, p. 260). Burger (2009) reports that a majority of children from low socio-economic backgrounds are more potential to experience grade repetition, to require additional educational assistance throughout their school superviseer, or ultimately become in high spirits school dropouts (p. 142).Ludwig and Phillips (2007) reported the findings of an evaluation completed by Garces, Thomas, and Currie (2002) that compared sibs, either attending or not attending the Head Start Program (p. 4). They wrote that the sibling that attended Head Start were 22% more likely to fine-tune and 19% more likely to seek higher education (p. 4). The internal Impact Study (NIS) is one of the most in depth study on the Head Start program, and involves a random compilation of children enrolled in Head Start throughout the country between the ages of three and four years old (Pianta, Barnett, Burchinal, & Thornburg, 2009, p. 59).This study showed that there was minor cognitive and social growth over a golf club month period. Barnett (2008) reported an increase of 0. 20 standard deviations on cognitive development and a decrease of 0. 05 standard deviations in negative social behavior, such as hyperactivity for three year olds (p. 6). However, upon completing a follow up on the study, the cognitive benefits gained by the children were no longer observed at the end of their kindergarten school year (Pianta, Barnett, Burchinal, & Thornburg, 2009, p. 59).Parents reported positive changes in their childs dental and physical health and the research indicates an increase of 0. 12 standard deviations (Barnett, 2008, p. 6). There was a case of four year olds that see greater cognitive development. This was illustrated by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, which had an increase of 0. 20-0. 27 standard deviations (Barnett, 2008, p. 7). The Tulsa Head Start program was designed with a resourcefulness to help children develop skills for school readiness.This preschool program is funded by the state and is a part of the Tulsa populace School system therefore, teachers must possess a Bachelor of Art grade and have a certification in early childhood education (Gormley, Phillips, & Gayer, 2008). The Tulsa Head Start program study compared the Tulsa Public School (TSP) pre-kindergarten against the Tulsa Head Start program. The study showed that the TSP pre-kindergarteners showed vast improvement in letter-word identification, spelling, and applied problems, whereas the Tulsa Head Start preschoolers results were deemed notable (Gormley, Phillips, & Gayer, 2008).While Head Start programs are supposed to adhere to a national standard (Pianta, et al, 2009), many do not have the aforementioned(prenominal) requirements (p. 55). Pianta and his colleagues (2009) explain that most teachers working for Head Start programs make little than $26,000 per year, with the exception of Tulsa Head Start whose teachers earn a regular teacher salary (p. 55). This may explain why the results of the Tulsa Head Start studies are not typical compared to other Head Start studies (Barnett, 2008, p. 7). Teacher qualifications of the Head Start employees may have an impact on the low levels of development observed of children in the program.Before 2011 Head Start teachers (excluding the Tulsa Head Start teachers) were not required to obtain an associate stage and directors did not have to possess a bachelor degree (Pianta, et al, 2009). However, Pianta and his colleagues (2009) report that by the year 2013, at least half of all Head Start teachers will be required to obtain a bachelors degree (p. 55). Because the Head Start studies were conducted in varying locations and on a transformation of children, it is difficult to pinpoint the exact impact of cognitive and social development for each child.The rate of attendance withal varies on location. Some Head Start programs have fewer than five days of scheduled class per hebdomad, while others attend the program five days a week during an entire school year (Pianta, et al, 2009, p. 54). Major successes of the Head Start programs come along to be achieving higher educational levels and improved health for children. The Head Start program reduced the mortality rate of children between the ages of five and nine years old (Barnett, 2008, p. 8) and provided a cognitive advantage in school achievement (Reynolds & Ou, 2011, p.556). There were no extraordinary impacts on childrens social development throughout the Head Start studies. The program, however, has received conflicting canvass. Williams (2010) explains that because there is no orderly way to measure the set up of this program, there have been reports of positive short-term gains in cognitive functioning (p. 4) and the program has received criticism for only producing short term benefits (Williams, 2010, p. 4). Impact of Public Preschool Another option for children is a public preschool program.There are public preschools that fun ction similar to the Head Start program, in which they target children from low income families. The teaching credentials of preschool teachers differ from other educators in the public school system and vary throughout different states. The requirements for public preschool teachers range from possessing a Child Development Associate (CDA) to a bachelors degree (Pianta, et al, 2009, p. 55). Public preschool programs tend to be successful in the area of cognitive and social development due to the increase of attention from the teacher (Barnett, 2008, p.8).The topic of teacher part in preschools is of a major concern and can have a direct impact on childhood development. Winter and Kelley (2008) explain that the development of a childs social behavior correlates with the quality of the teacher (p. 263). The most significant research on public preschools stems from the High/Scope Perry Preschool study. In this study that lasted for two years, approximately one hundred thirty childr en, minority and underprivileged, were either enrolled in a half-day preschool or assigned to a control group (Barnett, 2008, p. 9).These participants were chosen by the following criteria low levels of parent education, socioeconomic status, and low intellectual performance (Williams, 2010, p. 4). The results were astounding. Barnett (2008) reported that language and rudimentary cognitive skills increased by approximately 0. 90 standard deviations (p. 9). The cognitive advantage was short-lived as children from the control group were caught up during kindergarten (Barnett, 2008, p. 9) however, Reynolds and Ou (2011) pertinacious that there was an advantage on educational attainment (p. 556).The Perry study also showed license of social development in later years. The students demonstrated appropriate classroom etiquette, had lower levels of delinquency, and a higher rate of commencement (Barnett, 2008, p. 9). Burger (2009) explained that the Perry study is unique in nature due t o the environment of the classroom (para. 5. 2). He added that preschools similar to the Perry preschool have low child-to-staff ratios (Burger, 2009, para. 5. 2), so teachers are able to be readily available to their students. Another influential study on preschool impact is the Child Parent Center (CPC) study on a preschool in Chicago.This program was directed more for children from the ages of three to nine years old (Williams, 2010, p. 5). This preschool is tailored to low-income families that includes a half-day preschool, kindergarten, and a follow-on elementary school component (Barnett, 2008, p. 11). The results of all CPC studies were positive for impact on childrens cognitive development (Barnett, 2008, p. 12). The CPC study showed that participating preschoolers had higher test scores up until eighth grade, a reduction of delinquency, and observed an increase in the percentage of high school graduates (Pianta, Barnett, Burchinal, & Thornburg, 2009,p. 62).Reynolds and O u (2011) also evaluated the CPC study and found that former students tend to have less risk of experiencing depression and generally have higher occupational stature (p. 558). The National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER) reports that the Abbott Preschool Program has had a tremendous effect on child development as measured in 2005 and 2006 with the Abbot Preschool Program Longitudinal Study (APPLES) (Study of Abbott, 2007). The Abbott Preschool was heart-to-heart in 1999 and was put in place to serve the highest-poverty school districts (Study of Abbott, 2007) in the state of New Jersey (Study of Abbott, 2007).This preschool program showed positive cognitive growth in their students through their kindergarten year. The students enrolled showed significant achievements in English, reading, and mathematics (Study of Abbott, 2007). This program not only measured student progress, but also took into account the quality of the classroom. The study found a significant incre ase in child study, language and reasoning, activities and interactions, and program structure (Study of Abbott, 2007). Other studies of public preschools provided results depicting social development and school preparedness (Barnett, 2008, p.10).Pickens (2009) explains that public preschool programs show a positive impact on childrens behavior outcomes, especially for children living in poverty (Barnett, 1995 Peterson & Zill, 1986). In the preschool compass, children are exposed to other children from different backgrounds, different personalities and different ethnicities. During this time in childhood development, children begin to learn social behavior. Pickens (2009) explains that these social behaviors are twistd by their teachers and classmates (p. 263).Participation in the preschool setting allows children to learn how to interact with classmates and encounter situations that can mold their cognitive development (Willis & Schiller, 2011). Attending a preschool class helps to enable a child to learn to regulate their emotions, communicate hard-hittingly with others, cooperate with others, and to follow directions (Pickens, 2009, p. 263). Children nonplus what they see. Pickens (2009) urges educators and parents to assist children in developing healthy behaviors in an effort to distract a negative path of behavioral and academic issues (p. 264).Impact of Child Care Facilities Child foreboding facilities can consist of home-based child care or child development centers (with close to centers offering half-day preschool programs). These facilities are normally center-based and care for infants from six weeks old to three year olds (Pickens, 2009, p. 262). Child care facilities were found to have the humbledest initial effects on childrens learning and development (Barnett, 2008), while home-based daycare had no effect on building cognitive skills (p. 5). This is not to say that all home-based daycares are not able to provide any(prenominal ) cognitive benefit to children.If a home-based child care program is well-developed and provides a high-quality (Winter & Kelley, 2008), then children are more likely to benefit cognitively (p. 263). This high-quality can also make a passing in child care centers. The National Institute of Child Health (NICHD) and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and early days Development (SECCYD) showed that higher quality care(Belsky, Burchinal, McCartney, Vandell, Clarke-Stewart, & Tresch Owen, 2007) had a positive impact on childrens vocabulary skills (p. 681).The NICHD SECCYD conducted hereafter evaluations and found that some effects wore off at four and a half years old, while when evaluated in third grade the children had higher scores on standardized tests of math, memory, and vocabulary skills (Belsky, et al, 2007). The cognitive long-term benefits of attending child care may result in an increase in household income caused by working mothers however, working mothers tend to spend less time with their children (Barnett, 2008). fairish like preschool, child care can benefit underprivileged children.Belsky et al (2007) stated that child care can serve as an effective intervention for low-income children (Hart & Risley, 1995) that live in a household lacking(p) in literary skills (p. 697). Barnett (2008) mentioned that some studies show an actual regression of social development as children were more prone to be aggressive (p. 6). Winter and Kelley (2008) also report that the amount of time a child spends in child care has an impact of negative behaviors when they reach elementary school (p. 263). Others believe that a childs negative behavior is may correlate with the amount of time spent in day care.Pianta and his colleagues (2009) found that children who spent the least amount of hours in day care had less troublesome behavior (p. 58). Just as the quality of the Head Start and preschool teacher had an impact on the child, so does the careg iver at a child care center. The lack of academic qualifications of child care workers or lack of academically challenging curriculum can attribute to the small cognitive development observed in children who attend child care versus a more academically centered program.Meyers (2007) reports that the approximately two and a half million child care teachers are some of the last-place paid, only earning approximately $18,000 annually (para. 1). This is significantly lower than other early education teachers. The cognitive and social impacts on children are strongly related to to child-to-teacher ratio, total number of children in a room, and the teachers qualifications (Clothier & Poppe, 2007). However, it has been noted that the amount of attention the caregiver offers to the child can have an impact on their social and cognitive development (Pianta, Barnett, Burchinal, & Thornburg, 2009, p.58). determination There are noticeable short-term and long-term impacts on a childs de velopment, cognitively and socially, with the aid of early childhood education programs. Because the brain is vulnerable at this age it is in these years that children experience dramatic improvements (Mai, et al, 2011) in their cognitive and social abilities. The government funded program, Head Start, has indicated that while children do show immediate, moderate growth in cognitive development, social benefits were not as prominent.This program has proven to be beneficial to children from low- income families, as it has resulted in improved literacy, language skills and an increased rate of commencement. Preschool studies have also shown an increase in reading and mathematics ability and in some cases extending into elementary school years. The social benefits of a preschool education have had an even off longer impact on a childs future behavioral issues.There is a vast amount of research that shows that the early years of a childs development can influence future success (Wi nter & Kelley, 2008), so federal and state insurance policy makers should not depart from preschool education models that have proven highly effective (Barnett, 2008). It is important that in order for preschool programs, government-funded and public, to continue to be effective in child development, the need for well-designed programs is a must (Barnett, 2008). These well-designed programs must demand a high caliber of teachers that have formal post-secondary education in the area of early childhood development.Preschools should be prepared meet the needs of the physique of students from different backgrounds and be able to give children in need more of a priority (Barnett, 2008). More research on the impact of early childhood education is needed, due to the varying types of programs that are currently in place. References Barnett, W. S. (2008). Preschool education and its lasting effects Research and policy implications. Boulder and Tempe Education and the Public Interest Cen ter & Education Policy Research Unit. Retrieved September 12, 2012 from http//epicpolicy. org/publication/preschooleducation Barnett, W. S., & Yarosz, D. J. (2007).Who goes to preschool and why does it matter? Preschool Policy Brief, 15, p. 2. Retrieved October 8, 2012 from http//nieer. org/resources/policybriefs/15. pdf Belsky, J. , Vandell, D. L. , Burchinal, M. , Clarke-Stewart, K. A. , McCartney, K. , Owen, M. T. , & the NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2007). Are there long-term effects of early child care? Child Development, 78, p. 681701. Burger, K. (2010). How does early childhood care and education affect cognitive development? An international review of the effects of early interventions for children from different social backgrounds.Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 25, 140-165. inside 10. 1016/j. ecresq. 2009. 11. 001 Gormley, W. T. , Phillips, D. , & Gayer, T. (2008). The early years Preschool programs can boost school readiness. Science. 320(5884 ), p. 1723-1724. doi10. 1126/science. 1156019 Ludwig, J. , & Phillips, D. (2007). The benefits and cost of head start. Society for Research on Child Development, Social Policy Report. 21(3), p. 3-19 Mai, X. , Tardif, T. , Doan, S. N. , Lui, C. , Gehring, W. J. , & Luo, Y. (2011). Brain activity provoke by positive and negative feedback in preschool-aged children.PLoS ONE. 6(4), e18774. doi 10. 1371/journal. pone. 0018774 Meyers, M. K. (2007). Child-care pay, child-care quality properly early childhood education requires well-trained and compensated educators. The American Prospect 18(12), A18. Pianta, R. C. , Barnett, S. W. , Burchinal, M. , Thornburg, K. R. (2009). The effects of preschool education What we know, how public policy is or is not aligned with the evidence base, and what we need to know. Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 10(2), p. 49-88. doi 10. 1177/1529100610381908 Pickens, J. (2009).Socio-emotional programme promotes positive behaviour in prescho olers. Child Care in Practice. 15(4), p. 261-278. doi 10. 1080/13575270903149323 Reynolds, A. J. , & Ou, S. (2011). Paths of effects from preschool to adult well-being A confirmatory abstract of the child-parent center program. Child Development. 82(2). p. 555-582. doi10. 1111/j. 1467-8624. 2010. 01562. x Study of abbott preschool program finds positive effects. (2007, August/September). Preschool Matters. Retrieved September 28, 2010 from http//nieer. org/publications/preschool-matters-newsletters/volume-5-number-4 Williams, J.(2010).Assessment of quality preschool programming (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved September 28, 2012 from ProQuest. (UMI3413253) Willis, C. A. , & Schiller, P. (2011). Preschoolers social skills steer life success. YC Young Children, 66(1), 42-49. Retrieved September 24, 2012 from http//search. proquest. com/docview/874155104? accountid=12085 Winter, S. M. , & Kelley, M. F. (2008). twoscore years of school readiness research. Childhood Educatio n, 84(5), 260-260. Retrieved September 12, 2012 from http//search. proquest. com. ezproxy. liberty. edu2048/docview/210412708/fulltextPDF? accountid=12085.

Monday, January 28, 2019

Computer Technology: Ethical Issues and Codes Essay

Computer and networks tools provide considerable potential and energy principally as a means for communication, cooperation, and as delivery intervention. profits users, for instance, benefit from the independence of carrying out various transactions, as well as counseling, through the Net. With this liberty, though, comes a significant accountability to utilize estimators and the Internet especially, in a way which is secure, safe, ethical, and starts contribution to the general welfargon of those involved.Counselors should commit themselves to cunning and being aw be of the risks involved in utilizing calculators and employing the internet superhighway. Sabella, R. A. (1999) noned what the calculator and Internet technologies direct generated relative to counseling issues addiction of the internet, accessibility, pornography, sexual torture online, safety, and security. With growing responsiveness, counselors can be more effective in fashioning decisions regarding thei r behavior and computing online.One crucial issue of ethical computer utilization is the matter of confidentiality. The relationship of counselor and lymph gland is confidential and involves amity with ethical standards, policies and laws relating to confidentiality. In Computer, ethics, and the school counselor (1988), Mudore presented a number of recommendations for counselors for safeguarding the concealing of records and making sure that the information is only accessed by authorized persons.These recommendations build keeping the computer in a private ara in order that student information can be keyed in confidentially putting counseling records relating to student information on a backup storage disk marking counseling disks in ordinance instead of marking them Student Information or Student selective information protecting unauthorized copying of disks by detaching disk tabs, securing up disks, and not permitting disks to be taken out from their storage location encodi ng a battle cry before a computer can be open to prevent unauthorized access on the hard drive talk of the town to new(prenominal) staff to convey concerns regarding privacy and informing the school community regarding the challenges and issues generated by computer technology.It was also recommended by Sampson and Pyle (1983) that only vital and necessity information are kept the information is accurate the data are destroyed when these are no longer necessary to provide run separate identifiable data is not maintained to which there is computer network access and, separate identifiable information is not utilized for research reasons without the permission and approval of those who provided the information. Word processing programs and database programs are present tense equipped with the ability to provide a file password. The benefit to these software program programs is that if there is a password assign to the file, the file is encrypted in calculate and made it unr eadable.Even though there is a hatchway of fissure or hacking the code, it would take considerably broad programming knowledge in computer and access to the encrypted files. The disadvantage of employing this security aspect is that if the assigned password is forgotten by the counselor, then it is also pose a hindrance for the counselor to retrieve and access the file. It is, therefore, essential to write down passwords and accordingly put them in secure and safe access. It is likewise necessary to qualify passwords at regular intervals to further prevent infringement of confidentiality in the juncture a data file is stolen or unauthorized access.Passwords, on the other hand, should not be created by employing such characters as names, adjectives or birthdays that are quite obvious and easily deciphered. Passwords should be created using a combining of numbers and letters that are quite difficult if not unattainable to decode and crack. Even though security measures and encr yption have passing proceed sophisticated, illegal and unpermitted access to online communications continues to be a possibility without greater attention to security methods. Counselors who effectively practice online must not only legally protect but ethically safeguard their leaf nodes, themselves and their handicraft by employing all available and necessary security procedures.Other potential issues in using computer technology include Competency. The counselor and the client should be sufficiently computer literate for the network environment to become a workable interactive counseling medium Specific Locations. A possible lack of comprehension on the part of remote counselors of conditions, cultural issues, and events relating to specific locations that influence clients may limit credibility of a counselor or may lead to unsuitable interventions in counseling genuine Access. Does the price of online access present another impediment for getting hold of counseling? Does online counseling alienate further prospective clients who most peradventure need counseling?Though having access to the Net, can a client proficiently engage online counseling without having a computer experience? Online counseling appears to aggravate equitable issues already dealing face to face counseling. Credential. How allow licensing laws and certification apply to the World Wide Web as maintain borders are electronically crossed over? Will counselors be necessitate to be licensed and certified in all states or countries where the clients are situated? Will online counseling actually be the thrust for a national credential acknowledged by all states? Is there a necessity to move for worldwide credentialing? Who allow for supervise international or out of state complaints? Cyber Care.Can counselors promote the advancement of real working relationships, caring and trusting on the Net? Cyber Client identity. Do you really know your online client? Does the client show hims elf or herself as an bighearted but in fact is a minor? Could the client have disguised his or her race, gender, or other personal information that could expose the soundness or reliability of the counselors efforts? Counselors can make the plunge into cyberworld and apply present ethical standards and guidelines to carry out themselves in an ethical manner. Issues exist however but certainly the future will provide a platform in what signifies to be ethical as the precise nature of online counseling is learned.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

African americans and Native americans Essay

Afri ignore Americans and American Indians or inbred Americans are dickens of the major subordinate groups in America today. They face small-army forms of oppression from the controlling group and have many things in common when it comes to this oppression.I would the deals of to focus on five specific types of oppression they face stigmatization, segregation, ethnocentrism, disfavour, and discrimination.African Americans are facing stigmatization far less these days, but if peerless looks back a half-century, they will find numberless examples. Stigmatization can include the de-humanization, labeling, characterizing, and degrading of a group. During slavery, blacks were stigmatized into the happy and carefree characters Mammy and Sambo. This was through to show that slavery was good and blacks probably wouldnt be adapted to function in free society. When slaves were freed, blacks were painted as savages that could non be trusted to hold water normally. Caricatures of bl acks with exaggerated features and portraits of the characters Sambo and Mammy still exist today.For primeval Americans, stigmatization is far worse. Countless sports teams have a intrinsic American as their mascot, some having very derogatory names such as the Washington Redskins. Indians were also portrayed as evil in countless western movies and as ruthless savages in others. These stigmatizations make Indians seem more like fantasy characters than historical spate. Many people do not realize that these stigmatizations are very hurtful and detrimental to society.Segregation, the separation of two or more groups based on physical characteristics, is another push through that still plagues African Americans and Native Americans. From the moment Europeans set foot on what is now America, they have been forcing Indians farther and farther west. The American government created reservations for the Indians so that they could have the valuable resources that they needed. Treaties were signed and broken, and the Indians moved farther along the Trail of Tears. Reservations still exist today and for the most part Native Americans have are not integrated into American society.Most would like to think that after the Supreme Court case Brown vs. notice of Education, segregation no longer exists for African Americans. Sure its not like we still have separate drinking fountains, but by and large blacks and bloodlesss are separate. In all major cities large living accommodations projects have been created for low-income persons. The vast majority of the people living there are black. Most inner city educates are almost entirely do up of minorities. Legal segregation is no longer a difficulty anymore, but social segregation is still a major caper in society today and something needs to be done.Ethnocentrism is the feeling by one group that they are superior to another based on heathen background. Native Americans have al ways been the victims of this. They wer e forced to leave their homeland by the superior Europeans and thought not good enough to live among them. Native Americans still live mostly separate and many people still degrade them and think of them as inferior both mentally and physically. Most people have not been exposed to them yet venture them anyways. This is very sad and disturbing.African Americans were thought of as the lowest, stupidest, least refine people on earth. The whites thought they were far superior and showed this by literally stealing African Americans from their homeland of Africa and forcing to into slave labor. Even after slavery, white supremacy groups such as the KKK still exist and continue to be a proponent for the inferiority of African Americans. Many think of blacks as being less far less intelligent and civilized rase today.Prejudice and discrimination are two of the biggest problems facing African and Native Americans today, and the two go hand in hand. Prejudice involves negative attitudes towards ethnic groups, which can include beliefs, thoughts, and stereotypes. Discrimination is taking action on these prejudices by denying certain rights and opportunities to these groups. Prejudice leads to discrimination of these groups. African Americans as well as Native Americans are discriminated against in employment opportunities, housing options, public school resources, and countless other ways.They are discriminated against because of these prejudices and stereotypes.For example, say a black man walks into a store with his white friend. The employees of the store are more apparent to offer service to the white man and will probably determine the black man to make sure he is not shoplifting. The prejudice views they hold cause them to discriminate against the black man. These problems are very real even today and unless society as a whole addresses them and ways to stop them, they will continue to destroy the fabric of our country.

Saturday, January 26, 2019

Human Resource Management in Virtual Organizations Essay

As we move into the 21st century, a number of innovations that were once merely ideas argon now becoming naturalism. iodine of these is the practical(prenominal) scheme, where organizational members atomic number 18 geographically separated, but work in concert through calculating machine technology. To date, oft of the research and thought on realistic organizations has focused upon realistic(prenominal) technology and organizational aim-how to link the individual members and how to design the realistic(prenominal) organization to carry out(a) its work. This book takes this further in addressing the crucial question, how do you do human resource (HR) functions in the virtual organization? This question is particularly relevant when you consider that most traditional HR functions-hiring, training, evaluating performance, and rewarding (or disciplining) performance-assume thither will be face to face interaction as the basis for carrying out that function.This book ex amines human resource counseling (HRM) in the virtual organizational in 14 chapters written by various authors and compiled into four parts. Part I as the introduction contains cardinal chapters. Greenberger and Wang define and take in the virtual organization in the first chapter. past Crandall and Wallace look at the difference between traditional and virtual workplaces in the second chapter. Part II examines HRM program delivery in cardinal chapters. McClendon, Klaas, and Gainey look at HR outsourcing. Snell, Stueber, and Lepak examine HR departments, and Ulrich and Beatty describe the single-valued function of the HR professional in the virtual organization. Part triad presents HRM programs in virtual organizations.Sk chapters describe theorize analysis (DeCaprio), staffing (Elllingson & adenosine monophosphate Wiethoff), training and learning (Noe & Simmering), performance management (Cleveland, Mohammed, & Skattebo), hybrid reward systems (Heneman, Tansky, & Tomlinson), and negotiation (Lewicki & Dineen). Part IV contains two case studies delineating the problems and solutions to electronic commerce (e-commerce) banking in China by Wang, and cross-functional teams cyberlinked in an orthopaedic producer written by Crandall and Wallace. Finally, Part V concludes with a chapter on observations by Cardy.Most of the authors are academicians. Thus, they have a natural tendency to describe virtual organizations in terms of conceptual models, evolving constructs, and theoretical foundations. To the authors credit, however, they make a concerted effort to use real virtual organizations (is that an oxymoron?) to illustrate their points, same the Technology One Alliance among BankOne, AT&T, and IBM, the networks between Walmart and its vendors, Mercks virtual HR activities, and Lucents virtual product development team composed of 500 engineers operating over 13 era z whizs. In the first chapter, Greenberger and Wang take on the large task of assay to define exactly what a virtual organization is. They review 25 definitions from various articles and conclude that a virtual organization has several characteristics.First, there is a partnering relationship among parties either within or outside the organization. Second, there is a focus on core business activities that the virtual organization does well. Other activities are done by more(prenominal) traditional organizations. Third, technology connects the partners with the core business activities. Fourth, the organizational structure is flexible and fluid. Fifth, there is a focus upon virtual teams working on projects. In Chapter 2, Crandall and Wallace define the virtual workplace as a network of people conducting business processes beyond the traditional bounds of organization, time, and space.They contrast the traditional with the virtual organization and finger that virtual organizations emphasize self-managed teams, broad-based duties, cross-functional accomplishments, and a network orientation. One consequence is that the HR manager in a virtual organization takes on more differing graphic symbols than does the traditional HR manager. The virtual organization HR manager moldiness be a coach delivering feedback to self-managed teams, an architect of work flows using computer technology, a designer and deliverer of innovative HR programs to fit the virtual organization, and a facilitator of teamwork in self-managed teams.The most interesting section is Part III on how to carry out HR functions within the virtual organization. The elementary functions look the same as in the traditional organization, but the techniques are sometimes radically different. For example, in the virtual organization, electronic performance observe and online chat sessions are job analysis methods. Recruiting occurs through Internet job boards. Hiring involves electronic resumes, online testing, and online interviewing. Training focuses upon electro nic learning (e-learning) capability, communities of learning, and the use of learning portals. cognitive process management involves maintaining individual technological skill mixes and evaluating virtual team performance. blush pay systems need new forms because of the new types of work structures-virtual teams, alliances, and networks-and the changing lore of pay equity within these structures.One theme that underlies many of the chapters is the magnificence of teams in the virtual organization. The self-managed team is one of the building blocks of these organizations. Team members must possess or be trainable on traits conducive to operating in the virtual organization communication skills, cultural sensitivity, networking ability, tolerance for ambiguity, and interpersonal adaptability.Finally, virtual negotiation is unique. Negotiation in traditional organizations is face-to-face, but virtual negotiation occurs largely through email, which, on the one hand, has a greate r liking for norms of taking turns (e.g., waiting for an e-mail reply) but, on the other hand, there is a greater tendency for disinhibition, which may allow for rude and compulsive behavior, worry flaming. Moreover, there is a greater tendency toward message misinterpretation in virtual negotiation e-mails that lack the nonverbal information richness of face-to-face interaction.As I read the chapters, it occurred to me that the authors make a very elemental assumption, which is that the computer technology linking everything together is reliable and secure. This is particularly relevant because the crew of attacks from viruses and worms that had swept the nation in August, 2003, was still a very uninfected memory as I read this book. To compound the problem, our university computer router went out at the same time. The consequence was very limited feeler to e-mail and the Internet as our fall semester began.It was a shock to see how much this negatively affected our teaching, research, and interaction with our colleagues. And this was within a traditional university structure. I wonder how these onslaughts of viruses, worms, hackers, and equipment breakdowns affect virtual organizations. In the traditional organization, there are backup communication systems to the computer, such as faxes, phone messages, and even go over to someone and talking face-to-face. What is the alternative to the very centralized role of the computer if it malfunctions in the virtual organization?In conclusion, virtual organizations are much more than merely doing e-commerce through Web pages and gaining remote access to the company computer. They involve partnerships, fluid and flexible boundaries, focused business processes, broad-based skill mixes, decentralized teams, and complex connectivity to information networks. They run the gamut from loosely coupled telecommuting relationships to intricate cybernets. As the authors state, HR for virtual organizations will be one of the challenges facing business in the 21st century.Based upon what the various chapters describe, these virtual HR activities will probably still retain the traditional names, ilk recruiting, hiring, and training, but their actual forms will be as different as an SUV is to a Model T. So lets fasten our cigarette belts for a wild ride at Warp 4.5 into the virtual HRM reality of the virtual organization. But dont beam me up sooner yet, Scotty.

Friday, January 25, 2019

Kasambahay Bill Debate Essay

Domestic proletarians argon c bothed a friendly term in Manila Kasambahay to emphasize they are part of the nursing home. The circular is yet to be signed in Congress to depart legal recognition for the domestic cypherers and recognize the important role that Kasambahay childs plays in the building of the family and of society. Filipinos a good deal cadences think on the gos of domestic house athletic supporters for the orderly management of their households. Unfortunately, tied(p) if they perform vital day-to-day functions, domestic house benefactors are often mistreated subjected to physiological and mental abuse and made to work infra inhuman and brutal working conditions.Although there are existing cranch rectitudes which seek to shelter house helpers from these abuses, their implementation has been widely ignored. More over, these laws pay change by reversal inadequate to fully address the concerns and needs of our house helpers. The kasambahay has the right to decorous work which includes decent employment and income, humane conditions of work, accession to and coverage in social justification schemes, and the opportunity for social dialogue and representation. This bill similarly recognizes the dignity and the nobility of the household helper industry.Under this proposed legislation, the rights and inte sculptural reliefs of household helper are enhanced and cheered by ensuring just and equitable harm and conditions of their employment are embodied in their pick out with their employers. This proposed legislation is an command of the value and dignity of every person and guarantee full respectfulness for human rights. Body Affirmative The bill will batten down that household helpers will be provided with basic necessities and other benefits.With syndicate primeNo. 144, or theKasambahay snout passing its third and final reading in the House of Representatives, around both one thousand million domestic workers might soon enjoy standardize minimum wage and other basic benefits like health care, holiday leaves, and basic necessities. The bill mandates employers to enter into a contract with their helpers specifying the terms of the latter(prenominal)s employment and job responsibilities. It will also require employers to provide for their helpers lodging, board, basic education, and medical exam needs. Employers are also not each(prenominal)owed to place their helper low debt bondage, nor are they allowed to employ minors to work for them.The present affirms boil as a primary social force and has committed to protect the rights of workers and promote their welfare. It is party to international instruments pledging the elimination of forced labor, elimination of distinction in employment and occupation, and the abolition of child labor and trafficking in persons. The State has adopted the Decent Work Framework outlining good conditions of work for Filipino workers, which includes establishing labor standards, decent employment and income, enhanced coverage of social security and strengthened social dialogue, including kasambahays.It seeks to uphold the rights and dignity of kasambahays to protect them from abuse and ontogeny by providing safe and humane working conditions. Despite the vital and prerequisite work performed by kasambahays for most Filipino households and the important role they play in society, they are considered as one of the most vulnerable sectors in society due to the nature of their work. Of equal concern however, are employers of kasambahays who have equal rights to vindication from abuse and exploitation of kasambahays.The State further recognizes that kasambahays of minority age have special inalienable rights and privileges that should be espoused and protected, particularly in the areas of education and self-improvement. The State recognizes the importance of partnering with various groups and individuals in the promotion and protection of the rights and welfare of kasambahays and enabling to be empowered elements of society. Section 1 condition III of the Convention concerning decent work for domestic workers states that each member shall take measures to ensure the effective promotion and protection of the human rights of all domestic workers.The passage of Kasambahay Bill is a fulfillment of the countrys commitment to the international community when it ratified the domestic workers convention. More importantly, this aims to protect the welfare of more than two million househelpers, nursemaids, cooks, gardeners and laundry persons all over the country. Article II of the Kasambahay Bill (formally titled Act instituting policies for the protection and welfare of the domestic workers) explicitly enumerates the rights and privileges of every domestic worker.To wit The employer or every member of the household shall not subject a domestic worker to any kind of abuse or any form of physical violence or harassment. The employer shall provide for the basic necessities of the domestic workers to include at least(prenominal) 3 adequate meals a day and sleeping arrangements that ensure safety. The employer shall respect the privacy of domestic worker and shall extend the same to his/her talk and personal effects. The employer shall grant the domestic worker access to outside communication. The employer shall endure the domestic workers to finish basic education and may allow access to alternative learning systems, higher education or technical and vocational training. The domestic workers shall also be entitled to a daily rest period of eight hours and a weekly rest period of least twenty-four consecutive hours. A domestic worker who has rendered at least one year of assistance shall be entitled to an annual service incentive leave of five (5) days with pay.It shall also be irregular for the employer to place the domestic workers under debt bondage or the rendering of service as security o r payment for a debt. Any encroachment of the act shall be punishable with a fine not little than 10,000 pesos without prejudice to the filing of appropriate civil and criminal action. approximately provide of this measure are in response to reported incidents of abuse and exploitation against our kasambahay and prevent them from happening of service. Re onlytal On the other side of the argument, Kasambahay Bill is a messy, impractical.If not politically motivated, the Kasambahay bill is profound in theory, but in practice, it is messy and not practicable. First, not all housemaids are born(p) equal, so to speak. Some come from recruiting agencies, others are walk-ins, and some others are poor, save distant blood relatives. It is so easy and noble to fix their salaries, chip in them the regular employees perks, benefits and bonuses, but the fact remains that our house helps are not employees at all because they have an entirely different, if incomparable, daily work routine. How can a housemaid be compared to the egular employee who commutes or drives to work, spends stressful time on the road and money just to get to work? Thats why employees and/or laborers are given fixed wages and all those perks and bonuses.And culturally and traditionally, our housemaids are not our employees but family, simply because they live with us. Some of them are even considered second mothers to the children of a busy working mother. If the Kasambahay bill becomes a law, it should apply only to housemaids hired from agencies, with a written contract that stipulates nature of tasks, salary, benefits, bonuses, etc.But then, considering the ramifications of the law, can the hiring family in turn gush the housemaid for board and lodging, granting he/she is a stay-in? It is therefore possible that galore(postnominal) hardworking housemaids will lose their job and/or not be hired at all. At most, a Kasambahay law should be employ on a case-by-case basis. While the rich and t he business sector may welcome it because they can afford the demands of the law. Conclusion The kasambahay bill should enacted into law after 15 years in the making because itis for the benefit of our 1. million kasambahays nationwide.It provides minimum labor standards, including minimum wage setting, regulating working hours, homework of insurance and leave benefits for household helpers. This pro-poor measure stands to benefit the almost two million domestic workers we have throughout the country. Aside from the pay standardization, the House Bill 6144 also assured all domestic helpers of entitlement to a thirteenth month pay, coverage in the Social Security System, and all the benefits provided under Republic Act 8282, as amended.Also theKasambahay bill requires employers to provide deuce-ace basic necessities board, lodging and medical assistance, to their household help, nursemaids, cooks, gardeners and laundry persons. The Kasambahay bill seeks for the protection of local household workers from physical and emotional abuse. One of the highlights of the bill is the broad package since it entitles our kasambahays of food and medical provisions, allowable holidays and days off, provision of a written contract, proper accommodation, social security and PhilHealth coverage, annual salary increases and medical certificates, among others.

Thursday, January 24, 2019

We All Fall Down

Cormier is able to keep the reader engaged and interested passim the novel, whilst exploring meaning(a) social issues through a variety of narrative techniques. We all spillage run through centres on the story of four teenagers who vandalise a sign of the zodiac and the effects after the trashing that not only hire on the victims solely also the trashers themselves, thus Comier is successful in creating a successful novel. throughout the novel we observe the affect the vandalism has had on Jane Jerome. Through the give of shifting narrative eyeshot, Cormier allows us the view her thoughts and reactions to the trashing.After the trashing we learn that Jane used to hit the hay it here living in Arbour Lane, however the effects of the trashing have left Jane feeling Ashamed wanting to hide somewhere, as if she had make something wrong not the culprits, not the invaders. The use of shifting narrative perspective shows that as a result of the trashing, everything changes for Ja ne, making the reader feel gracious and upset for Jane. The reader is drawn into the world of the We all fall down, interested and impelled to find out how Jane is going to get on with her life with the memories of the trashing, still very fresh in her mind.Through the highlighted techniques, Cormier has written an fire novel, that challenges the reader to think beyond the page and explore issues that could be in their lives. We all fall down maintains and engages the readers interest throughout not only because of the readers expectations of the thriller genre with conflict and tension, merely also because Cormier confronts the reader with compelling ideas which challenge and entertain the reader.

Friday, January 18, 2019

Comparing the Electoral and Party Systems of China and Russia Essay

The collapse of the inter atomic number 18aal leftic network changed the world at the turn of the century. The failure of the m each socia inclination of an orbit regimes ended the confrontation between East and West and provided an opportunity to reconstitute the international order. The individual states of East Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, mainland chinaware and the occasion Soviet center took differing paths and chose differing restructuring strategies, which themselves led to different courses of transformation.The former hard-line socialist regimes of Russia and China had to face the challenges brought by the new world order specifically on altering its semi policy-making structures. This paper would compargon the presidential term and policy-making science of China and Russia focusing on the selectoral laws and their impacts on the party constitution. Moreover, this would soften to recommend some possible measures to ensure the development of democracy for b oth(prenominal) countries and to address some of their problems. Russia is a vast country with an imperial and dominating past.By area, Russia is the giantst country in the world, almost twice the size of the joined avers. The population includes numerous minorities, with 36 national groups containing more than 100,000 people, Russias rulers acquire in the past been autocratic empire builders, basing their imperial expansion on control of the serf society and a rural community. Russias have it away in communism represented a culmination of a authoritarianism. The Union Soviet Socialist Republics encompassing 15 European and Asian Republics, organize the former Russian Empire.The politics of Russia take place in a framework of a federal presidential republic. According to the Constitution of Russia, the death chair of Russia is head of state, and of a multi-party system with executive power exercised by the administration, headed by the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the President by the parliaments approbation. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Federal fiction of the Russian Federation, while the President and the government issue numerous licitly binding by-laws.Although Russia has traditionally been ruled by absolute monarchs and dictators, it currently has a take system of government. Since gaining its independence with the collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991, Russia has faced serious challenges in its efforts to forge a political system to follow nearly seventy-five years of Soviet rule. With a new constitution and a new parliament representing diverse parties and factions, Russias political structure subsequently showed signs of stabilization.As the transition period lengthy into the mid-1990s, the power of the national government continued to wane as Russias regions gained political and economic concessions from Moscow. Although the struggle between executive and legislative branches was partly resolved by the new constitution, the two branches continued to represent essentially opposing visions of Russias future. One of the worlds oldest civilization consisting states and cultures date back thousands of years ago is China. It is a cultural region, ancient civilization, and nation in East Asia.The deadlock of the last Chinese Civil fight has resulted in two political entities using the name China the pecks Republic of China (PRC), administering mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau and the Republic of China (ROC), administering Taiwan and its environ islands. It has the worlds longest continuously used written run-in system, and the source of some of the worlds great inventions including paper, compass, gunpowder, and printing. The states Republic of China is working within the framework of a iodin-party socialist republic.The will of Chinese citizens is expressed through and through the legislative bodies of the Peoples Congress system. Peoples Congress members at the coun ty level are elected by voters. These county level Peoples Congresses have the state of oversight of local anaesthetic government, and elect members to the Provincial Peoples Congress. The idyl Peoples Congress in turn elects members to the National Peoples Congress that meets each year in March in Beijing. Current political concerns in China include lessening the developing gap between rich and poor, and fighting corruption within the government leading.The support that the communist society of China has among the Chinese population in general is unclear because national elections are mostly CPC dominated, as in that location are no opposition political parties and independent ratdidates elected into powerfulness are too scattered and disorganized to challenge CPC rule. According to Hague and Harrop, Party systems are the interaction between the significant political parties. In a democracy, parties respond to each others initiatives in a agonistic interplay.The party sy stem also reflects legal regulation applying to all parties. In China, a dominant party system is in place wherein unitary party is a constant component of the executive, governing either only if or in coalition. The dominant party system was more special K in the twentieth century than it is today and China is one high-flown example. The dominant party of the PRC is the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The leadership of the CCP is enshrined in the PRC Constitution. State power within the PRC is exercised through the CCP, the Central Peoples Government and their provincial and local counterparts. chthonian the dual leadership system, each local bureau or mooring is under the theoretically co-equal authority of the local leader and the leader of the jibe office, bureau or ministry at the next higher level. The ruling Communist Party committee at each level plays a large role in the selection of appropriate candidates for election to the local intercourse and to the next higher l evel. China is a country that accepts involvement from aggregate political parties. Apart from the CPC, the ruling party, there are eight political parties.They are China Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang, China Democratic League, China Democratic National Construction Association, China Association for the Promotion of Democracy, Chinese Peasants and Workers Democratic Party, China Zhi Gong Dang, Jiusan Society, and the Taiwan Democratic Self-government League. virtually of them were founded during the anti-Japanese war and the national liberation war. They support the political leadership of the CPC, which has kick the bucket their historical choice during the long years of cooperation with the CPC and through earthy struggles.Although there are other political parties present in China, these parties are not opposition parties, but parties participating in the discussion and administration of State affairs. Moreover, these parties serve to endorse CCPs policies. Meanw hile, Russia is working on a multi-party system wherein the legislature comprises several minority parties, resulting in coalitions or minority government by the leading party. The multi-party system in Russia resulted to the rise of not bonnie one political party unlike the case of China.Although, United Russia occupies the absolute majority seats of the Duma, the seats obtained by the Russian Communist Party, as well(p) as other parties, are significant in producing checks and balances to the Russian Assembly. electoral systems were made to answer the question of how to convert votes into seats. In elections to the legislature, the main questions is whether an electoral system ensures that the seats obtained by a party are outright proportional to the votes received (Hague and Harrop 146).In China, the people do not presently elect delegates for the National Peoples Congress (NPC). China practices democratic centralism wherein direct democracy is only practiced at the local l evels and the elected delegates in the local peoples congresses in turn elect their representative at the NPC. Delegates for the local peoples congresses are elected using the first-past-the-post system (FPTP). FPTP is a type of non-proportional system wherein parties are not rewarded in proportion to the share of the votes obtained.Specifically, FPTP takes the plurality form of non-proportional representation where a candidate only needs a plurality of votes to win a seat and a majority of votes is not required. In Russia, seats in the Duma were formerly elected half by proportional representation (with at to the lowest degree 5% of the vote to qualify for seats) and half by single member districts. However, President Putin passed a decree that all seats are to be elected by proportional representation (with at least 7% of the vote to qualify for seats) to take effect in the celestial latitude 2007 elections.Particularly, Russia is adapting the list system to confer delegates for the Duma. The list system is the most common method of proportional representation in which parties submit a list of their candidates and then the votes they obtain determines the percent of seats they get. In proportional representation, the inclination is to represent parties rather than territories. For China, the adoption of the list system is recommended to develop a genuine opposition party. For many decades now, the rule of the CCP did not face any significant challenger in China.There have also been secessionist movements due to some ethnic and cultural cleavages such(prenominal) as the Tibetans who are lobbying from independence from China. The adoption of the list system would allow the voice of the minority to be heard in the NPC thus ensuring the democratic rights of the people. It will also use up China less prone to violence, just like what happened in the Tiananmen murder were students on protest were open fired by Chinese military, since grievances can be acknowl edge in government institutions such as the NPC.It is requisite to abolish democratic centralism since government processes are easily manipulated by local bureaucrats to advance their own selfish gains. Political reform in China is a matter of opening the nominally open elections to other political parties. For Russia, the current electoral system is well on its way to democratize the Russian political system. However, the recent decree of Putin would make it difficult for littler parties to obtain a seat in the Duma.Seven percent is such a high threshold and may cause the marginalization of the little parties and the domination of the more established ones. A lower threshold is hereby recommended and that Putins decree for the December 2007 elections should be repealed because it is a hindrance for the continuous democratization of Russia. These formerly hard-line socialist regimes have adopted measures to allot up with the new international order. However, not both were able to give way to democratization due to the electoral and party systems that they adapted.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Creative Brief Essay

Is to increase the consumption of take out among the teenage base so that they would insobriety less sugary and carbonated drinks that would harm their health .The ProductMilk is by far the healthiest beverage after water supply . Milk helps to strengthen the bones and the teeth . Milk drinking drops arrive at sharply in the teenage eld because it is considered to be uncool and about of teenagers are worried about the calories and fat . Part of it has to do with the privation of flavours and the packaging being dull . This is what we found out about the harvest we decided to help , which is HL Milk by Marigold .Target auditionOur target audience would be males and females aged from 16 to 25 years old .Milk is a beverage that every parent would tell their kids to drink as children , though most of them still drink milk for breakfast but they still choose to drink other drinks like nose candy , pepsi or ribena .Milk has force less relevant to their lifestyles . They think milk doesnt go well with foods like Mcd , Pizza and KFC . Why they choose velvety drinks is because the soft drinks are exciting , versatile and its an acceptable alternative to milk .Promise and supportPromiseTodays milk can help the teenagers become strong and dynamic . Looking at the hectic schedule teenagers shake these days ,it is recommended to drink milk to help them note fresh and energized the social unit day . Support.Milk has the nutrition the body needs to hear and feel dynamic. Today most teenage athletes and famous teen celebrities drink milk . Ice cold milk taste great especially with HL Milks 3 new taste which are tattle , coffee and mango . It has a more refreshing taste to it . non to heavy nor to creamy . Its light and smooth . Brand nature.The personality at a time of HL Milk is dull and there isnt any engaging colours that would attract a consumer to get it . Some consumers especially teenagers look at the packaging before purchasing products . If its attractive and youthful they would secure it .The old packaging is very practical and conservative as it scarcely has 2 colours with no pictures on the box . The needed personality for teenagers to buy the HL Milk would be exhuberant , contemparory and youthful . The packaging would check the lifestyle of the teenagers . The would be shy to drink milk in mankind .

KFC †Marketing Strategy Essay

The purpose of this paper is to critic constantlyy last(predicate)y evaluate the merchandising st pigegies of KFC (Kentucky heat up chickenhe cheated). The police detective will essay how the organization creates transcen ding(p) prize and physiques unbendable family to capture encourage from nodes in return. The paper explores facts for underframeing and produceing utile guest relationship by put uping higher-up pass judgment and satisfaction. The researcher is acquittance to investigate the social obligations of the partnership to ob dispense the impact organizational policies on the environment, community, wellness of the consumer and recitation of available resource At the end the researcher will suggest how the participation plunder design guest drive viandsstuffing schema for acquiring, retaining and attracting impertinent(a) customers. The paper besides foc exercises on creating superior value and satisfaction through blissful securitie s industry placeing and colloquy programmes.presentationKFC which stands for Kentucky Fried Chicken formed in 1930 and base in Louisville is the initiations famous chicken restaurants chain specializing in original recipe, surplus crispy, Kentucky grilled chicken etc. Everyday more than than 12 million customers atomic number 18 served in more than 109 countries and regions. KFC operates more than 800 restaurants in UK, more than 5200 restaurants in USA and more than 15,000 restaurants nearly the globe. KFC is part of YUM polariates corporation, the worlds largest restaurant gamy society in terms of system restaurants with more than 36,000 locations around the world. The fel humiliatedship is ranked 239 on fortune 500 list, with revenue in bargon of $11 billion in 2008.KFC is as affiliated to the environment as we are to our food and to our customers. We are proud of the steps we produce interpreted so far to rivet our environmental footprint and are committed a s a dirt to do even more in the in future. Its an ongoing journey that were on and we urgency to keep you our customers informed along the way KFC introduced beginning(a) reusable straightaway food container in 2010. The society reset(p) plastic plates with paper serving boxes and lessen physical exertion of non-renewable resources like styro bubble from the restaurants. By 2011 the federation will reduce foam and plastic use by 62% and 11% respectively. Note You stinkpot check the ideal history of the corporation at http//www.kfc.com/ slightly/pdf/timeline.pdf merchandiseIt is the process by which the c tout ensembleer-out creates value for the customers, builds strong relationship with the consumers and captures value in return. (Kotler, 2007) Lets use the simple baffle of grocery storeing process to assess the secrets behind the victor of KFC.UNDERSTANDING THE securities industryThe sanctioned grounds behind the success of KFC is their susceptibility to unders tand the commercialiseplace and involve of the customers. KFC conducts consumer research to go vast(p) length in learning just intimately their market, competitors and customers. Consumers wants are satisfied by providing superior value and satisfaction. a nonher(prenominal) factors behind often(prenominal) a resounding success are the talent of lodge to understand whom to serve, how to serve by integrating customer drive marketing strategy and how to capture the value in return to build long term profitableness. The social club has adopt the sentiment of increasing the plumpe of the customers rather than increasing result market share.CHOOSING A VALUE propose later successful segmentation the familiarity decides about how it will serve the customers to differentiate and position itself in the market place. through and through value proposal the political party creates mark of benefits that distinguish itself as a premium sucker in the market. the bon ton provides superior food and dining experience to kids, families and visitors in entrap to discover dinning and to differentiate itself from competitors. The beau monde mountain passs ingatherings that offer most in quality, performance and taste. Due to service oriented constitution of the hospitality perseverance the company maintains customer-centred sense of marketing by bristleing the right produces for their customers sort of of acquireing the right customer for their crops.MARKETING STRATEGYThe primary destination of developing a customer driven marketing strategy is to build strong and profitable relationship with the customers for accomplishing short and long-term organizational goals. Through market segmentation, tar vanquishing and situation the company divides its overall market into smaller segments to be served effectively. It identifies the needs of the tar wear market by selecting the most promising segments and consequently delivers premium value in or der to foster customer satisfaction and loyalty. In order to design a best marketing strategy and marketing mix the company makes use of environmental analysis, marketing analysis, cookery, death penalty and control measures.To survive and be competitive in the market KFC designs customer oriented strategies to win customers from their competitors and to grow by delivering superior value. The instructions is advised about the cost of having dissatisfied customers who disparage the carrefours to other individuals. thence they design products and make believe that are appealing to all the consumers.MARKET SEGMENTATIONAt counterbalance place the company decides whom it will serve? By dividing the orchestrate market into different segments like Family, Kids, Visitors, Tourists, Professionals, age, region, culture etc and then developing superior value for specific segments. Market segmentation enables the company to select and serve further those segments fling the best luck for achieving the organizational goals and objectives. Consumers are grouped and served based on demographic and geopgraphic factors. The segmentation as well enable the company to break the behavioural patterns, affordability, best communication and delivery channel.TARGET MARKETINGAfter the careful selection of the segments, the company evaluates the attractiveness and profitability of available segments. base on such findings the company selects segments pledging for superior customer value, generating more profitability and where it can sustain value over time.MARKET POSITIONINGIn order to make a clear, distinctive and suitable product photograph before the target market KFC makes use of competitive intelligence to get useful information about their competitors for gaining competitive reinforcement in the market, benefiting from graduation exercise mover advantage (FMA) and for having a competitive prices. The company sustains the competitive advantage by having pooh-poo h prices than competitors and providing more benefits. The company differentiates itself through by recognize customer loyalty and appreciating staffs or customers input for customizing their circuit board. Another useful tactic use by the company is the selection of medium through which the information is distri exactlyed (disseminated) to the general overt for maintaining the desirable stigmatize recognition and picture. The company effectively uses all the available media (print, electronic etc) for targeting the potential customers and creating a distinct corporate view.MARKETING MIXIt is the set of controllable tactical marketing dents that the company blends in order to get the desired response from the target market (Kotler, 2005). It involves everything that the company aspires to influence call for in the target market.PRODUCTKFC offers tasty and convenient food to customer at nominal prices. The company produces products for family, kids and state of age group s to discover dinning. Although company has done alot for offering quality food to the target market but critics point that hamburgers, friend chicken, fries, and snacks contain high fat and salt. Sometimes meals are Super sized leading to over eating and becoming an manifest cause of obesity epidemic. Although the products are wrapped in convenient box but raise postulates for handling substantial waste and pollution. KFC cosmos the largest stead immediate food supplier generates tons of full-blooded waste every day where significant percentage isnt recyclable and lasts longer on the landfills. Therefore in the shorter run the company is satisfying consumer needs but creating environmental problems in the longer run.The company has a reputable image and smirch name in the world for producing quality food with essential nutritions, reasoning(a) ingredients, low calories and drinks containing needed minerals. nodes can easily get the information about the products from the c ompanys website with guidance on how the product is made, customer can excessively customize product on their own premises and flip-flop the ingredients to their likings. All the burgers are filled with chicken breast only. Recently the company invest The company invests 1 million per annum to switch to nutritionally superior high oleic rape sow oil following that recently company announce to use only high oleic rape seed oil in all products and aborting the use of palm oil.The company has variety of things distinguishing itself from the competitors  operate within the uniform industry. Some of the defining aspects distinguishing company from its competitors are easy to cook food, dandyish packaging and status value. Buyers dont estimate the products values and costs objectively and are only persuaded by sensed image of the company and its food in the market.PRICEThe company deploys gestate management to come up with competitive prices for their products. The prices are r eally low due to large number of happeners penetrating in the same market or industry and satisfying consumer needs. More than anything its the brand individuality influencing people to acquire the product. The company as well as uses Augmented Product concept in order to boost the exchanges, provide special discounts and schemes for rewarding loyalty. The company has s different prices for different segments based on number of servings.PLACEMENTSThe company greatly emphasizes on customer convenience for obtaining products/services therefore confound de sign(a) free standing outlets so that customers are not few minutes walk away from the outlet, suburbs, cities or high street. The outlets are positioned at all major shopping malls, train stations, cities, urban center centres and suburbs so the cost of reaching the market, acquiring and dis comprise the product is low. Apart from expressing darksome concerns for customer wellness issues the company directly interacts with th e target market by providing toll free number and facility to go online for reserving orders. The company has likewise adopted the concept of Direct merchandising where consumers can buy some anything without going to the outlet by telephone, mail-order catalogue or by tour online. KFC uses www.kfc.co.uk or www.kfc.com for direct marketing.PROMOTIONKFC deploys different activities for communicating the merits of their products and persuading customers to obtain their products/services. The company uses print and electronic media to target the potential customers and for maintaining a distinctive image of their products/service before the public. KFC has the presence on different social websites such as Facebook, Flickr and Linkedin to promote the products. The company spends goodish amount of money for denote and Selling.The marketing experts design different TV Ads for promoting the products, targeting the individuals, disseminating the merits of products and attracting ne w ones. The company also uses bill boards, sign boards, print publications, brochures, magazines, printing success stories in the composition and forming partnership with other famous organizations to boost selling and preserve an elative expect before the public. Recently the company was ranked as a Britian nobble Employer and recognized as a great place for work on the basis of following catalyst characteristics performance recognition culture, friendliness, team work, travel progression, forwarding and development opportunities.MANAGING THE MARKETING EFFORTApart from being sizeable at marketing, KFC pays significant attention to management that includes in depth market analysis, planning, implementation and control. The company gathers lot of information about the market to analyze whether the window of opportunity is candid for their products before actually marketing products to the target market. The company first develops marketing oriented mission statement, then dev elop strategic plan for products, services, brands and target markets. After thorough consideration and planning the company turns plan into actions.ENVIRONMENTAL abstractThe environmental or blighter analysis is used to assess the industry in which the company is direct and is used in conjunction in SWOT epitome to find out major opportunities or threats facing company. The company can use such techniques to examine the internal or external forces affecting their ability to provide superior value to customers at a fair price. The gent analysis of the KFC is as underPOLITICALKFC has partnered with several government and non-government organizations to effectively circumvent barriers influencing to deliver premium value to customer. Many consumers and environmental groups have raised their voice against fast food giants providing junk and unhealthy food to consumers. Critics suggest that hamburgers, French fries, fried chicken etc are high in fat and salt. The government has also re harded the fast food giants not to market the food to under age groups and regulated the companies to modify their product circuit board that doesnt contribute to national obesity epidemic. Critics feel that fast food companies are harming consumer health and providing fat food. Recently KFC signed up to the governances Public Health Responsibility Deal, promising to include calories on menu boards.The company will also be submission a Lighten Up initiative at point of sale by offering customers an opportunity to lighten up their meals for free or by swapping a prescribed drink to diet, and fries for corn or beans saving up to 295 calories. The company was also the first QSR to introduce salad to the menu and to stop salting its fries, and eliminated artificial trans fats in 2007 by removing hydrogenated vegetable oils from its menu. Furthermore, a salt reduction programme launched in 2005 has so far lessened salt by up to 40% across the menu. The company has adopted fair trade practices e.g having the culture of equal opportunity employment, minority rights, accurately declaring business income, paying taxes. In united states Food and Drug administration, Consumer product safety commission set safety standards for the products and penalize companies failing to bear them.ECONOMICThe management keeps an eye on ongoing economic events so that the company isnt affected by economic volatilities or un trustworthyties. The company well monitors per capita income of consumers in different regions, ongoing inflation affecting buy behaviour and exchange rates limiting their ability to obtain or import material from suppliers. The company gathers all that information to exploit from elbow grease market imperfections in the international arena and from expanded opportunity rationale. brotherlyThe company deploys Societal Marketing in order to maintain the rest between consumer short-run wants and long-term welfare the company has set up strict guidel ines for portraying a favourable public image and to sustain brand recognition. KFC is a company that satisfies the needs of the target market by doing whats best for them in the longer run? To curb the concerns of consumers and environmental groups the company has taken different initiatives to look after health and safety issues of their employees and customers in particular. Recently the company introduced Brazer (non-fried, griddled range, to consistently improve the nutritional indite of their menu (products), to fulfil promises made about health and to cut deplete the level of saturate fat.The company has also done partnership and signed memorandums with other organizations to look after public health issues. Recently the company was ranked as a Britain top employer and as a sweet place to work for individuals. The company executive disclosed that the company provides advancement opportunities to individuals on merit and encourages team work and individual participati on. The company established environmental leadership council in 2006, became a member of Considerate asseverator Scheme and presently working with atomic number 6 Trust to reduce push button emissions. The company has also taken initiatives for reducing century footprints, making cost-efficient use of natural resource e.g water, electricity etc. The company has also formed alliance with environmental defence system to handle solid waste and maintain environmentally favourable image.TECHNOLOGICALThe company is run in a rapidly changing environment creating new opportunities and posing threats. The new engineering science creates new opportunities but the of renewal new technology is always high. The company is aware about the cost of ignoring new technology and its side effects as well. KFC is a company that keeps with the technological changes and refines its product menu on regular basis. Such changes have resulted in much higher research and development costs due to the c omplex nature of the technology the marketers and consumers must have technical know how.SWOT ANALYSISSWOT ANALYSIS is the acronym of Strengths, Weakness, Opportunity and threat is a strategic tools used by the company to analyze the circumstances in which the company is in operation(p). Strengths and Weaknesses are the internal factors on which the organization has heart control where as Opportunities and threats are the external uncontrollable factors.Strengths of KFC* Favourable public image and Brand right* Second largest fast food supplier after Macdonalds* Global conception* Nominal Prices* Customer Convenience* Professional certifications and awards* Proactive management* Britains top employer and great place to work* Flexible Franchising bringing considerable revenue* Customer Equity* Organizational cultureWeaknesses of KFC* High labour turnover* Junk food* Same taste twice* insufficiency of innovation* Cultural clash of two titans namely Pepsi and KFC* Hygienic foo d problems as one of the outlet in America was declared rat infectedOpportunities for KFC* Rapidly changing economy and global trends* Increased demand for convenient food* Pursue Conglomerate Diversification for health sure people * Increased diversity* Global market imperfections* Expanded opportunity rationaleThreats for KFC* Saturated Market* Increased Competition* Rapidly changing technology* Legal legislations and political regulations* International political chaos* first variety* Availability of substitute products* Threat of new entrants* Bargaining tycoon of Customers* Lack of competitive intelligence* Health and safety concerns* Environmental and Government RegulationsANSOFFS PRODUCT MARKET EXPANSION GRIDIt is a portfolio mangement tool for identfying growth opportunities through market penetration, market development, product development and diversification. The model is depicted asSince its inception the company has used different tactical manoeuvre in order to hove r around in the international market to market their products to domestic, national and international consumers.variegationIn 1930 the Harland Sanders opened his first restaurant in Corbin in front of gas station.PRODUCT studyIn 1937 Sanders Court & Caf added a motel and expanded the restaurant to 142 seats.MARKET PENETRATION, PRODUCT AND MARKETDEVELOPMENTIn 1960 Colonels hard work on the road begins to pay off and there were 190 KFC franchisees and four hundred franchise units in the U.S. and Canada. In 1964 Kentucky Fried Chicken had more than 600 franchised outlets in the United States, Canada and the first overseas outlet, in England. In 1971 the company had more than 3,500 franchises and restaurants worldwide when Heublein Inc. acquired KFC Corporation. At the end of 1979 the company had There are or so 6,000 restaurants worldwide with sales of more than $2 billion.PRODUCD DEVELOPMENT AND DIVERSIFICATIONIn 2007 KFC introduced a new recipe that keeps the Colonels 11 her bs and spices and finger-lickin flavor, but contains goose egg Grams of Trans Fat per serving thanks to new cooking oil. In 2008 The Colonel had a new look KFC updated one of the most recognized, respected and beloved brand icons with a new logo. The new logo depicted Colonel Sanders with his signature pull in tie but replaced his classic white double-breasted suit with a red apron symbolizing the home-style culinary heritage of the brand and reminded customers that KFC is always in the kitchen cooking delicious, high-quality, freshly prepared chicken by hand, just the way Colonel Sanders did 50 social classs ago.MARKET DEVELOPMENT AND DIVERSIFICATIONIn 2009 KFC introduced Kentucky Grilled Chicken a better option for health conscious consumers to care for their long run welfare in order to capture the entire stream of purchases they would make for the rest of their life. Kentucky Grilled Chicken had less calories, fat and sodium than KFCs Original Recipe chicken, without sacrifi cing the great taste of KFC.PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTIn 2011 the company launched first ever non-fried range the Brazer that is is a lighter, great-tasting alternative to KFCs existing menu, and includes three new items a burger, a Twister (a tortilla wrap) and a salad, each of which are lower in calories (by up to 60%), fat (by up to 87%), saturated fat (by up to 82%) and salt (by up to 45%) than regular menu items. The company has been using the Ansoffs product market blowup grid by introducing the existing products internationally, providing halaal food to different communities opening new market and needs to be satisfied, by modifying the nutritional profile of their menu and by slightly changing the cooking ingredients at times.CUSTOMER birth MANAGEMENT (CRM) AT KFCAccording to Philip Kotler (2007) customer relationship management is an art of building and maintaining profitable customer relationships by delivering superior value and satisfaction. KFC has authentic an extensive da tabase about their customers in order to track touchpoints where they can deliver superior value and maintain profitable relationship with the customers. The major reason for the success of KFC is their ability to offer products having highest customer perceived value and exceptional the customer perceived value. Another reason of such a phenomenol success is the capability to market products whose perceived performance normally exceeds customers expectations. beyond offering high quality products the company has designed several customer loyalty and retention programs by rewarding customers on frequent purchases.The company also uses Selective Relationship Managment by undertaking customer profitability analysis where overall motive is to weed out loosing customers and target engaging ones for pampering. The company creates profitable customers by providing exceptional quality products and delivering customer oriented superior value. The company knows that losing a single cus tomer means losing the entire stream of purchases the customer would make over the entire lifetime. The firms leverages CRM to offer great variety to customers in order to increase the Share of customers rather than the market share. KFC examines its relationship with social values, responsibilities and the Earth that sustains it.Recently the company announced to cut the use of plastic by 17% and foam by 62% for the year 2011. The social responsibility and environmental movements have placed even strict demands on the company. As KFC is a forward flavour company so it readily accepts the responsibility to the world and people around it. The company views such actions as an opportunity to do well by delivering good (new slogan of the company is So Good). The company compares the opportunity cost of its actions against the long interests of the customers and communities. The company has also taken initiatives towards Data security and Privacy Issues to curb the misuse, scam or phis hing.PUBLIC RELATIONS AT KFCPublic relation is an art of managing communication between the organization and the public with an objective to create and maintain favorable public image. KFC uses different communication tools for building awareness about their products and for preserving socially image in the mart for their products and services. The company deploys numerous equity or perceived value and dent the reputation of the organization in the market. All the efforts are aimed at serving the public to understand the company and its products in more depth. The company sends conundrum shoppers to different outlets to unveil defects in service or product. The company also gathers a lot of information about the customers and different topics of their interests to leverage relationship for building a strong public image.Apart from using different media in order to influence the public the comany also deploys lobbying, printing success stories in the newspaper, launching produc ts, posting particular achievements online and by sponsoring UN HUNGER food PROGRAM for providing food to needy people. Recently the company was nominated as the great place to work for individuals and was awarded an award of Britain Top Employer. Such measures play critical role in achieving a competitive edge, attracting high eager individuals, creating and delivering superior customer value moreover protecting the well being of the company in the time of crisis.Yum Brands which is the parent of KFC has formed an Animal offbeat Advisory Council whose role is to get information and advice based on pertinent scientific research. The company also obtains positive headlines in the media by exhibit the commitment to the environment and by productively (efficiently, frugally) using the natural resources. In 2010 the company introduced fast food reusable container. The corporate policy is to reduce the usage of non-renewable resources, cut down the use of Styrofoam and carbon foot p rints. In that respect the company is using the concept of Subsistence Economy. The company has also developed guidelines, limitations, and rules (restrictions) for the suppliers in the broiler industry. The company is also proud to be a prominent player in the collaborative effort conducted by topic Council of Chain Restaurants and the Food Marketing Institute in developing house-to-house guidelines for all species of farm animals. The company has also implemented programs in the state of poultry care and handling.The company has initiated partnership with Barnardos, the UKs biggest charity business children and young people to address the issue of youth unemployment. The company is backing the United Nations World Food Programme against world hunger by raising over half a million pounds last year thats about 3.35 million meals for children in some of the poorest regions of the world. The company is also implementing the concept of product liability where the manufacturer is responsible for the faulty product or any damages made by the product to the consumer. In the past the companies were sued, dragged in court and evicted on ignoring the product liability obligations.For lesson when considering the tragic tampering case in which eight people died from swallowing cyanidelaced capsules of acetaminophen a Johnson & Johnson brand. The company knew that the pills were altered in some stores not in the factory so it decided to recall all of its products. The total recall cost was $240 million in earnings but in the longer run such initiative strengthened customers confidence, trust and loyalty in the company. It shows the importance of managing public relations in crisis to preserve the favourable image of the organization. KFC bought the best quality chicken from UK Farms that pertain Red Tractor Standards.The company has decided to cut the level of saturated fat by 25%, use of plastic by 17%, use of Styrofoam by 62% and invested 1 million annual ly on replacing palm oil with rape seed oil. The company also provides all the nutrition information on the internet so that the consumers are aware about their calorie intake and has reduced the use of salt on menu board. All these initiatives show the dedication of the company towards protecting the long-run welfare of the community and customers. The company was recently conferred with an honorary award of Carbon Trust Standard for continued CO2 reduction. In 2009 the company opened first eco-store with salient energy saving features.CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS base on primary and secondary research it can be deduced that the company has taken best initiatives to build strong public image, influence people buy their products by effectively leveraging the selective relationship management and in improving work place practices from employment and production perspective. As the study suggests that the company knows the overall impact of its operations on Environment, health of t he consumer and reputation of the organization. So it has taken measures to curb the environmental pollution by decreasing the use of plastic and Styrofoam, reducing calories, saturated oil and fats in the food by replacing palm oil with rape seed oil, reducing salt, providing nutrition information to the consumers, obtaining high quality chicken from British farms and by modifying the nutritional profile of the menu on consistent basis. As suggested in earlier part of analysis the company is also musical accompaniment the United Nations World Food Hunger Program, joined charity in order to help the unemployed youth and reducing the use of non-renewable resources to certain extent by building eco-stores with some energy saving features.The company is making a significant contribution in the well being of the society and in preserving the natural climate by reducing carbon footprints. All these initiatives are the premium examples of how organizations create and maintain profita ble customer relationship by using public relations, societial marketing and customer relationship management. When observed from the business perspective the company is operating within a highly saturated market not showing any signs growth for the future. The company can increase the share of their customers by closely analyzing the other cultural values and perceptions. As the company is operating worldwide it can add new products to menu board by undertaking global cultural research analysis and consequently creating superior customer values shaped by consumers needs, wants and demands by law-abiding culture.Based on my own judgement it seems like companys policy is to sell everything to everyone. They should focus on particular segment of the market, closely analyze their needs, carefully select the customers and deliver superior customer value to capture back the value in return. As United ground is the country with rich diversity so all these issues should be taken into con sideration when creating superior customer value, selecting the appropriate communication channel for positioning the product or targeting the customer, crafting an effective message for the public for communicating the merits of the product and designing loyalty scheme.In analysis it has been discovered that the company hasnt been able to develop customer loyalty and retention programs beyond offering consistently high value and satisfaction. Now a days companies offer frequency marketing programs whereby they reward customers for buying more or in bulk. For instance airline companies offer frequent flier programs, hotels provide populate upgrades to regular guests and supermarkets give patronage discount to valuable customers. KFC isnt implementing such schemes to reward customers for their loyalty and commitment. 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